In cross-border e-commerce, electronic retailers (e-retailers) aim to extend their economic activities via the Internet beyond national borders. Unlike large companies, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are struggling with their international online expansions. This study investigates how both country characteristics and firm owner characteristics influence the success of SMEs in cross-border e-retailing. Through conducting a multi-national study in 31 European countries, this study builds theory on the decision of SMEs to start cross-border e-retailing and on their subsequent business performance. This project is among the first to set up such a large-scale study on SMEs in cross-border e-retailing.